La présence comme représentation et comme expression


Abstract: In a book issued in 1998, La parole muette, Jacques Rancière suggests, in Michel Foucault’s lineage, to think literature as a dated epistemological construct. To do so, he submits the thesis of its origins when the representing discourse (of the arts in the first place and of literature in particular) is hit by the divorce between «words and things». Ever since, it has been the expressive discourse investing in literature to the point of making it the imminent expression of human life. Representation and expression have, in fact, a scholastic tradition which goes back before the neoplatonicians and whose relation is crucially put in question by Spinoza and Leibniz. Representation and expression are two notions which define each in a different way the co-presence of the divine and the humane, bringing together two different but nonetheless miscible visions of the world. We shall show in this paper, following the steps of the rigorously technical analyses made by Gilles Deleuze on Spinoza and the issue of expression, how the modernity of literature can be also translated as an effort to reconcile the idea of the world as a imitation and as a lived experience; as image and diffusion of the origin; as transcendence and immanence. By virtue of this ecumenical metaphysics, literature could be submitted to a single regime of axiology.

Keywords: Jacques Rancière, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, âge du signe, médiations ontologiques